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Major Crops in India Notes for General Knowledge Test

SSBInsights Team
10 Nov 2017

Major Crops

Rice, India's preeminent crop is the staple food of the people of the eastern and southern parts of the country. India is second large producer in the world only next to China. Per hectare production is highest in Punjab but West Bengal leads in total production of rice in the country. Followed by Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh.

Wheat is the next important crop in the country after rice. India is the second large producer of the world next to China. U P leads the country both in the area under wheat and its production. Other major producers are Punjab and Haryana.

Bajra requires dry and warm climate. Rajashan is the largest producer in the country.

Maize is a coarse grain, used both as food and fodder. Karnataka is the major producer.

Jowar is a crop cultivated both in Kharif as well as rabi season. It grows well in Regur soil. The areas under cultivation of Jawar have not changed since independence. Maharashtra ranks first both in area under jowar and its production in the country.

Pulses For vegetarians, the supply of proteins mainly comes from the pulses. Tur (Pigeon pea), moong (green gram), udid (black gram), chana (gram), watana (peas)masur (lentil) etc are cultivated in varying proportions in all parts of the country.

Oilseeds India in the mid-1990s has almost attained self-sufficiency in the production of oilseeds to extract vegetable oil, essential in the Indian diet. India produces a variety of oil seed crops. Groundnut, Sesame, linseed, mustard,sunflower,Soyabeans are some of the important oil seed crops of India.  India is the third largest producer of linseed and second in the world after Brazil in production of Castor seeds. In the production of oil seeds Gujrat leads the country.

Groundnuts, is grown mainly as a rain-fed crop in the semiarid areas of western and southern India and is the largest source of the nation's production of vegetable oils. The leading producers of Groundnut in the country are Gujrat, and Tamil Nadu.

The second-ranking source of vegetable oils is rapeseed. Cottonseed, an important by-product of cotton fiber and once mostly fed to cattle, is another source of vegetable oils. Soybeans and sunflower seeds are relatively new as significant oilseeds, but their production has increased rapidly.

Commercial Crops

India has the largest area under sugarcane and its production is also highest in the world. Due to higher percentage of sucrose is found in hot climate, the areas for sugarcanes are gradually shifting towards south. Major producers are UP, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

Raw cotton is the most important nonfood commodity produced in India. Cotton was an important export crop in the 1950s, but thereafter it provided the raw material for India's textile industry, which grew greatly after independence. It gives the best output in areas of Regur soil. India is third largest producer in the world. Main production in our country is generally short staple cotton. Recently medium and long staple varieties like Buri, Laxmi, Varlaxmi and Devraj are developed. Largest cotton producing State is Gujrat. It is followed by Maharashtra, and Punjab.

Certain important varieties of cotton from India

Gossypium arboreum, commonly called tree cotton.

Gossypium herbaceum, also called Levant cotton. It was first cultivated in Western Sudan from there it spread to India,

Gossypium hirsutum, known as upland cotton or Mexican cotton

Gossypium barbadense, also known as extra long staple (ELS). Indian Suvin variety of cotton falls in this category.

Raw jute is second only to cotton as a farm-produced industrial raw material. Before partition in 1947, India was the world's main supplier of jute and jute goods used as packaging material. After partition concerted efforts are made to increase area under jute in India, as industry remained concentrated around Kolkata but growing areas went to Bangla Desh.

Tea India is the largest producer as well as consumer of tea in the world. There are several tea producing regions in India. Assam, Darjeeling, the Nilgiris, Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim feature prominently in this list.

Coffee Though it grows in hotter environment, the plant is required to be protected from direct sun rays. Thus tall shady trees are planted around them. Coffee production in India is dominated in the hill tracts of South Indian states, with the state of Karnataka accounting 53% followed by Kerala 28% and Tamil Nadu 11%. Indian coffee is said to be the finest coffee grown in the shade rather than direct sunlight anywhere in the world

Cashew Nut From its humble beginning as a crop intended to check soil erosion, cashew has emerged as a major foreign exchange earner next only to tea and coffee. Coastal states of the country are the main production centres.The important cashew growing states of India are Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu. It is also cultivated on small areas in other states of the country. India is the largest producer, processor, consumer and exporter of cashew in the world. The current production accounts for 45% of the global production.

Tobacco is used in addition to smoking and chewing, in the manufacture of insecticide. Even though the cultivation of Tobacco is spread all over the country, commercial cultivation of Tobacco is concentrated in States like Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Bihar, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

Rubber India is the fourth major rubber producing country in the world. Within the country, 92% of country’s total production comes from Kerala alone.

Fruits Intensive cultivation of vegetables, flowers and fruits is known as Horticulture. India is the second largest producer of fruit and vegetables. It leads the world in the production of Mangoes and bananas.

Vegetables India produces 13% of world’s vegetable output and occupies first position in production of

pea and cauliflower, second in onion, cabbage, tomato and brinjal and fourth in potato.

Saffron                       Jammu and Kashmir

Spices  Pepper, Cardamom, Cloves, Cinnamon, Ginger, Nutmeg and Cassia are together known as spices. They are mainly grown in Malabar Coast of Kerala and Karnataka.


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