Notes Geographical terms
imaginary lines drawn parallel to equator. The equator represents 0° latitude,
while the North Pole is 90°
N and the South Pole is 90°
S. 23 1/2° N represents Tropic of Cancer while 23 1/2°
S represents Tropic of Capricorn.
661/2° N represents Arctic Circle and 661/2°
S represents Antarctic Circle.
of the Earth
Zone lies between 23 ½ N and 23 ½ S that is
between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. This is the hottest
zone since the rays of the Sun are more nearly perpendicular here than any
other region. This is also known as Tropical Zone.
Zone lies between 23 ½ N and 66 ½ N as well
as between 23 ½ S and 66 ½ S. This zone has temperature range of below 32 for
about 8 months of the year.
Zone lies between 66 12 N/S and 90 N/S. This
is extremely cold throughout the year.
an imaginary line round the earth running through the point on each
meridian with the highest average temperature. It lies mainly to the north
because of the larger landmasses and therefore greater summer heating.
Time is uniform time fixed by each country.
It is fixed in relation to mean time of a particular meridian that passes
generally, through middle of the country. Indian Standard Time is fixed based
on 82 ½ ° E meridian that passes through
Varanasi and Kakinada. Larger countries like USA, Canada and USSR, which have a
great east-west stretch, have to adopt several Time Zones for practical
Mean Time (GMT) is based on the local
time of the meridian passing through Greenwich near London. This time is taken
as starting point for working time for any place in the world. U. K. has
accepted it as their standard time.
Date Line is an imaginary line, which passes
through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, corresponding along most of its length
to 180° longitude. This is the only
longitude that zigzags over the surface of the ocean. The line deviates at many
places to avoid dividing of countries. There is a time difference of 24 hours
between the two sides of this meridian. The date changes by one day when this
line is crossed. As one goes from west to east, a day is lost and when one goes
from east to west a day is gained.
in general, is a bend in a sinuous watercourse
or river. When a meander gets cut off from the main stream, an oxbow lake forms.
humidity is the ratio between the amount of
water vapor present in the air and the maximum that could be contained at a
given temperature and pressure. It is always expressed as a percentage. Thus RH
=gms (Vapor present) *100 / Gms (Vapor
that may be maximum at that temperature)
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